PFAS Treatment

State Full wdt_ID State GW Treatment Approval SW Treatment Approval GW and SW Approval Treatment Type(s) Approved Treatment Detail (?) Other Mitigation State Testing Requirement for GAC Detail State Requirement for Reactivated GAC State Testing Requirement for IX for PFAS State Requirement for Reactivated IX State Testing Requirement for Membranes for PFAS State Testing Requirement for New Media State Testing Requirement for New Treatment Technique SOP or Guide for Treatment Approval SOP Link/Details
Vermont 1 VT AWWA and NSF Full-scale Pilot for SW Full-scale No
2 PA Yes No No GAC and IX Arsenic testing if it is bituminous coal based. Pilot testing is required of GAC on surface water systems. Piloting for SW. NSF Pilot testing NSF Piloting Pilot testing Piloting
3 WI Yes No No GAC and IX Pilot test or Rapid Small Scale Column Pilot testing Pilot testing We have requirements for pilot studies for new treatment under NR 811.44
4 NH Yes No No GAC, PFAS Resin, POU Resin, POU RO Larger systems generally conduct a voluntary pilot evaluation for media capacity and pretreatment needs NSF/ANSI 61 No NSF if regen offsite. If onsite, then no retesting other than pH neutralization and continued monitoring of contaminant removals. NSF NSF NSF + pilot or demonstrated success elsewhere Yes
5 KS Yes No No GAC Requirements would not differ between GW or SW. NSF/ANSI certification required. Need pilot testing to demonstrate treatment will be effective. Also require a wastestream summary review to identify how process waste will be disposed of. Pilot testing Pilot testing Pilot testing + literature from independent source demonstrating efficacy. Examples from other states would be requested. Pilot testing + literature from independent source demonstrating efficacy. Examples from other states would be requested. We follow minimum design standards and EPA guidance/regulations.
6 ID No No No Pilot testing and/or full scale demonstration testing Challenge testing and pilot testing No
7 TN No No No GAC and IX We have not approved any treatment specifically for addressing PFAs removal. However, as stated above, we can approve GAC and Ion Exchange on a case by case basis. A pilot test would be required, however, we do not have a complete piloting and reporting procedure at this time. This would not differ for groundwater versus surface water. A pilot test would be required, however, we do not have a complete piloting and reporting procedure at this time. This would not differ for groundwater versus surface water. A pilot test would be required, however, we do not have a complete piloting and reporting procedure at this time. This would not differ for groundwater versus surface water. A pilot test would be required, however, we do not have a complete piloting and reporting procedure at this time. This would not differ for groundwater versus surface water. A pilot test would be required, however, we do not have a complete piloting and reporting procedure at this time. This would not differ for groundwater versus surface water. Yes https://www.tn.gov/content/dam/tn/environment/water/documents/wr_wq_dw-community-water-system-design-criteria.pdf
8 OK No No No At this time, DEQ has not developed procedures specific to PFAS. At this time, DEQ has not developed procedures specific to PFAS. At this time, DEQ has not developed procedures specific to PFAS. At this time, DEQ has not developed procedures specific to PFAS. At this time, DEQ has not developed procedures specific to PFAS. Yes https://www.deq.ok.gov/asd/rules-and-regulations/
9 MP Yes No No GAC and RO Haven't required any testing to date. But we have required manufactures certification of treatment. We haven't authorized reactivated GAC to date. We are trying to not use any reactivated GAC unless produced on island. We worked with EPA ORD and haven't allowed Ion exchange to date due to the high levels of salt water intrusion already. No testing but NSF certification for actual membranes. Pending levels we do require quarterly or annual monitoring at EP. Same requirements.
10 AZ Yes No No GAC and IX There is one system that has RO installed to treat for arsenic and nitrate and later it was discovered that they also have PFAS so they incidentally treat for PFAS as well. ADEQ may require some type of tests to support vendor estimates and at the very least will require extensive source water characterization. Pilot testing is preferred but may not be mandatory for all projects, and decisions will be made on a case by case NSF The process is anticipated to be similar to GAC for single pass ion exchange. The regeneration of ion exchange will not be recommended, but probably not prohibited (for example, if a system has PFAS and nitrate, they will have to regenerate). Membrane performance testing requirements will be minimal (since performance is constant and better controlled than with GAC or AIX). Testing shall cover source characterization (including seasonality impact), vendor’s estimates for system specific water This will not be recommended because in accordance with EPA recommendations, ADEQ would like to see mature (well-established technology/media) to be applied for PFAS. Since PFAS has to be treated to almost non detect, using new media that brings new opera This will not be recommended because in accordance with EPA recommendations, ADEQ would like to see mature (well-established technology/media) to be applied for PFAS. However, this option will not be prohibited, and testing will require more mass balance Draft ADEQ does not have SOPs for reviewing treatment and probably will not make one since treatment review is project specific. We are, however, working on guidance documents for PWSs and engineering firms to support permitting (describing what must be submitt